Protecting your home from wildfire is your responsibility. To reduce the risk, you’ll need to consider the fire resistance of your home, the topography of your property and the nature of the vegetation close by.
You should also contact your local fire department, forestry office, emergency management office or building department for information about local fire laws, building codes and protection measures.
The actions you take to mitigate the risk on your property before a fire occurs can make all the difference. Following certain fire safety guidelines ensure that your home has the best chance of surviving a wildfire.
- Know Your Rights – Under Federal law, you are entitled to a safe workplace. Training also plays a key role in the prevention of accidents.
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Create Defensible Space with Firewise Landscaping
The idea of Firewise landscaping (PDF, 13MB) is to create a separation between fuels a fire needs to continue burning. Fuels include trees surrounding your property, plants used in landscaping and even your home itself. A healthy, well-maintained landscape is important to the survival of homes during a wildfire.
Bruce Woods, who heads the Mitigation and Prevention Department of the Texas A&M Forest Service, shows you in this video what you can do to reduce the wildfire risk around your home.
Using the Zone Concept
The primary goal for Firewise landscaping is fuel reduction — limiting the amount of flammable vegetation and materials surrounding the home and increasing the moisture content of remaining vegetation. The home itself and everything around it up to 100 – 200 feet is known as the ‘home ignition zone.’ In areas across the country where the risk of wildfire is high, the home ignition zone extends up to 200 feet beyond the actual home structure. Within this 200 foot area, there are three zones:
Zone 1 encircles the structure and all its attachments (wooden decks, fences, and boardwalks) for at least 30 feet on all sides. Note: the 30-foot number comes from the very minimum distance, on flat ground, that a wood wall can be separated from the radiant heat of large flames without igniting. In this area:
- Plants should be carefully spaced, low-growing and free of resins, oils and waxes that burn easily.
- Mow the lawn regularly. Prune trees up six to ten feet from the ground.
- Space conifer trees 30 feet between crowns. Trim back trees that overhang the house.
- Create a ‘fire-free’ area within five feet of the home, using non-flammable landscaping materials and/or high-moisture-content annuals and perennials.
- Remove dead vegetation from under deck and within 10 feet of house.
- Consider fire-resistant material for patio furniture, swing sets, etc.
- Remove firewood stacks and propane tanks; they should not be located in this zone.
- Water plants, trees and mulch regularly.
- Consider xeriscaping if you are affected by water-use restrictions.
Zone 2 is 30 to 100 feet from the home, and plants in this zone should be low-growing, well irrigated and less flammable. In this area:
- Leave 30 feet between clusters of two to three trees, or 20 feet between individual trees.
- Encourage a mixture of deciduous and coniferous trees.
- Create ‘fuel breaks’, like driveways, gravel walkways and lawns.
- Prune trees up six to ten feet from the ground.
Zone 3 is 100 to 200 feet from the home and this area should be thinned, although less space is required than in Zone 2. NOTE: Because of other factors such as topography, the recommended distances to mitigate for radiant heat exposure actually extend between 100 to 200 feet from the home – on a site-specific basis. In this area:
- Remove smaller conifers that are growing between taller trees. Remove heavy accumulation of woody debris.
- Reduce the density of tall trees so canopies are not touching.
Learn more about your home and wildfires
Use the interactive modules, games and quizzes below to learn about how wildfire behaves and what you can do to make your home safer.
- The basics of defensible space and the “home ignition zone”
- Landscape/Construction Guide (PDF)
- How to have a Firewise home (PDF)
- Preparing a Home for Wildfire Season
- Wildfire Approaching
- Explore a Firewise Home
- Research About How Homes Ignite
Firewise Landscaping in Texas (PDF, 13MB)
Firewise construction (PDF, 2MB)
Be Embers Aware (PDF, 1MB)
Watch videos to learn more about wildfire behavior and how to make your home safer.
What are the questions are asked most frequently about Firewise and wildfire safety? Check the list.
Presentations, booklets and brochures
Take a look at some valuable presentations, brochures and booklets that are available to share.