Disaster Tier Effects

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Disasters of all types can have primary, secondary, and tertiary effects.

Table 1. Examples of Disaster Tier Effects

Primary Effects Secondary Effects Tertiary Effects
Primary Effects occur as a result of the disaster event itself. Secondary Effects occur only because a primary effect has caused them.

Tertiary Effects are long-term effects that are set off as a result of a primary event.

Examples:

  • Water damage as a result of flood or hurricane.
  • Property damage as a result of an earthquake, tornado, landslide, or hurricane.

Examples:

  • A tsunami generated as a result of earthquake.
  • Disruption of power and water as a result of an earthquake, tornado, flood, or hurricane.
  • Flooding caused by a landslide into a lake or river.
  • Landslides and debris flows.

Examples:

  • The loss of habitat caused by a flood as a result of permanent changes in the position of river channel.
  • Crop failure caused by a volcanic eruption.
  • Roads and highways blocked.

Table 2. Relationships of Primary and Secondary Hazards

This table shows the relationships of primary hazards and secondary hazards.

  • Grey boxes – Secondary hazards triggered by the primary hazard.
  • Black boxes  – Intersecting same hazards and represent null.
  • Red boxes – Terrorism is a special case. It is a motivation rather that a physical phenomenon. It uses hazards to create impacts.[1]

 

References:

  1. Image Source: http://www.seattle.gov/emergency/publications/documents/SHIVA.pdf [Accessed July 14, 2013]

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